2) Bureau of Labor Statistics, average expenditures of households in lowest quintile (2009): $21,611
3) Ratio of 2 to 1: 1.87
How can this be? Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield at Heritage Foundation explain:
[T]he Census report massively undercounts the economic resources provided to poor people. The Census asserts that a household is poor if its "money income" falls below a specified threshold. In 2009, the poverty income threshold for a family of four was $21,756. However, in counting the money income of households, the Census ignores virtually the entire welfare state. For example, there are over 70 means-tested welfare programs that provide cash, food, housing, medical care, and social services to poor and low-income persons. Major means-tested welfare programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Supplemental Security Income; the Earned Income Tax Credit; food stamps; the Women, Infants, and Children food program; public housing; and Medicaid. (Social Security and Medicare are not means-tested welfare programs.)Agreed.
In 2008, federal and state governments spent $714 billion on means-tested welfare programs, but the Census counted only about 4 percent of this as "money income" for purposes of determining whether a household was poor. The bottom line is that the economic resources available to poor persons are vastly greater than the Census claims.